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Results from Genoa
22/7/2001
Media coverage from the G7/G8 Summit in Genoa has been totally dominated by the violence. But there were also important political talks. Here the comunique issued at the end of the meeting.



COMMUNIQU

Genova, 22 July 2001

1. We, the Heads of State and Government of eight major industrialised
democracies and the Representatives of the European Union, met in
Genova for the first Summit of the new millennium. In a spirit of
co-operation, we discussed the most pressing issues on the
international agenda.

2. As democratic leaders, accountable to our citizens, we believe in
the fundamental importance of open public debate on the key challenges
facing our societies. We will promote innovative solutions based on a
broad partnership with civil society and the private sector. We will
also seek enhanced co-operation and solidarity with developing
countries, based on a mutual responsibility for combating poverty and
promoting sustainable development.

3. We are determined to make globalisation work for all our citizens
and especially the world's poor. Drawing the poorest countries into
the global economy is the surest way to address their fundamental
aspirations. We concentrated our discussions on a strategy to achieve
this.

A Strategic Approach to Poverty Reduction

4. The situation in many developing countries -- especially in Africa
-- calls for decisive global action. The most effective poverty
reduction strategy is to maintain a strong, dynamic, open and growing
global economy. We pledge to do that.

5. We will also continue to provide effective development assistance
to help developing countries' own efforts to build long-term
prosperity. Consistent with the conclusions of the LDC III Conference
and the Millennium Declaration, we support a strategic approach
centred on the principles of ownership and partnership. In the common
interest of donors and recipients of aid, we shall ensure the
efficient use of scarce resources.

6. Open, democratic and accountable systems of governance, based on
respect for human rights and the rule of law, are preconditions for
sustainable development and robust growth. Thus, we shall help
developing countries promote:
-- accountability and transparency in the public sector
-- legal frameworks and corporate governance regimes to fight
corruption
-- safeguards against the misappropriation of public funds and their
diversion into non-productive uses
-- access to legal systems for all citizens, independence of the
judiciary, and legal provisions enabling private sector activity
-- active involvement of civil society and Non Governmental
Organisations (NGOs)
-- freedom of economic activities.

We, for our part, will:

implement fully the OECD Bribery Convention support efforts in the UN
to pursue an effective instrument against corruption encourage
Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) to help recipient countries
strengthen public expenditure and budget management.

Debt Relief and Beyond

7. Debt relief -- particularly the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor
Countries (HIPC) Initiative -- is a valuable contribution to the fight
against poverty, but it is only one of the steps needed to stimulate
faster growth in very poor countries. We are delighted twenty-three
countries have qualified for an overall amount of debt relief of over
$53 billion, out of an initial stock of debt of $74 billion. We must
continue this progress.

8. In particular we look to countries affected by conflict to turn
away from violence. When they do, we confirm that we will strengthen
our efforts to help them take the measures needed to receive debt
relief. We confirm that HIPC, in conjunction with reforms by the
countries to ensure strong domestic policies and responsible lending
by donors, is designed to lead to a lasting exit from unsustainable
debt.

9. Beyond debt relief, we focussed our discussion on three mutually
reinforcing elements:
-- greater participation by developing countries in the global trading
system
-- increased private investment
-- initiatives to promote health, education and food security.

10. Open trade and investment drive global growth and poverty
reduction. That is why we have agreed today to support the launch of
an ambitious new Round of global trade negotiations with a balanced
agenda.

11. While opening markets through global negotiations provides the
greatest economic benefit for developing countries, we fully endorse
measures already taken to improve market access for the least
developed countries (LDCs), such as Everything But Arms, Generalised
Preferences and all other initiatives that address the same
objectives. We confirm our pledge made at the UN LDC III Conference to
work towards duty-free and quota-free access for all products
originating in the least developed countries. We support efforts made
by LDCs to enter the global trading system and to take advantage of
opportunities for trade-based growth.

12. Increased market access must be coupled with the capacity to take
advantage of it. Thus, to help developing countries benefit from open
markets, we will better co-ordinate our trade related assistance to:
-- provide bilateral assistance on technical standards, customs
systems, legislation needed for World Trade Organisation (WTO)
membership, the protection of intellectual property rights, and human
resource development
-- support the work of the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related
Technical Assistance, encourage the international financial
institutions to help remove obstacles to trade and investment, and
establish the institutions and policies essential for trade to
flourish
-- urge countries to mainstream trade expansion by including it in
their poverty reduction strategies.

13. Increased private sector investment is essential to generate
economic growth, increase productivity and raise living standards. To
help developing countries improve the climate for private investment,
we urge MDBs and other relevant international bodies to support
domestic reform efforts, including the establishment of public-private
partnerships and investment-related best practices, as well as codes
and standards in the field of corporate governance, accounting
standards, enhanced competition and transparent tax regimes. We call
on the World Bank to provide additional support for programmes that
promote private sector development in the poorest countries. To
promote further investments in the knowledge-based economy, we call on
the WTO and the World Intellectual Property Rights Organisation, in
collaboration with the World Bank, to help the poorest countries
comply with international rules on intellectual property rights.

14. Official development assistance (ODA) is essential. We will work
with developing countries to meet the International Development Goals,
by strengthening and enhancing the effectiveness of our development
assistance. We commit ourselves to implement the landmark OECD-DAC
Recommendation on Untying Aid to LDCs which should increase aid
effectiveness and achieve more balanced effort-sharing among donors.

15. At Okinawa last year, we pledged to make a quantum leap in the
fight against infectious diseases and to break the vicious cycle
between disease and poverty. To meet that commitment and to respond to
the appeal of the UN General Assembly, we have launched with the UN
Secretary-General a new Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, malaria and
tuberculosis. We are determined to make the Fund operational before
the end of the year. We have committed $1.3 billion. The Fund will be
a public-private partnership and we call on other countries, the
private sector, foundations, and academic institutions to join with
their own contributions -- financially, in kind and through shared
expertise. We welcome the further commitments already made amounting
to some $500 million.

16. The Fund will promote an integrated approach emphasising
prevention in a continuum of treatment and care. It will operate
according to principles of proven scientific and medical
effectiveness, rapid resource transfer, low transaction costs, and
light governance with a strong focus on outcomes. We hope that the
existence of the Fund will promote improved co-ordination among donors
and provide further incentives for private sector research and
development. It will offer additional financing consistent with
existing programmes, to be integrated into the national health plans
of partner countries. The engagement of developing countries in the
purpose and operation of the Fund will be crucial to ensure ownership
and commitment to results. Local partners, including NGOs, and
international agencies, will be instrumental in the successful
operation of the Fund.

17. Strong national health systems will continue to play a key role in
the delivery of effective prevention, treatment and care and in
improving access to essential health services and commodities without
discrimination. An effective response to HIV/AIDS and other diseases
will require society-wide action beyond the health sector. We welcome
the steps taken by the pharmaceutical industry to make drugs more
affordable. In the context of the new Global Fund, we will work with
the pharmaceutical industry and with affected countries to facilitate
the broadest possible provision of drugs in an affordable and
medically effective manner. We welcome ongoing discussion in the WTO
on the use of relevant provisions in the Trade-Related Intellectual
Property Rights (TRIPs) agreement. We recognise the appropriateness of
affected countries using the flexibility afforded by that agreement to
ensure that drugs are available to their citizens who need them,
particularly those who are unable to afford basic medical care. At the
same time, we reaffirm our commitment to strong and effective
intellectual property rights protection as a necessary incentive for
research and development of life-saving drugs.

18. Education is a central building block for growth and employment.
We reaffirm our commitment to help countries meet the Dakar Framework
for Action goal of universal primary education by 2015. We agree on
the need to improve the effectiveness of our development assistance in
support of locally-owned strategies. Education -- in particular,
universal primary education and equal access to education at all
levels for girls -- must be given high priority both in national
poverty reduction strategies and in our development programmes.
Resources made available through the HIPC Initiative can contribute to
these objectives. We will help foster assessment systems to measure
progress, identify best practices and ensure accountability for
results. We will also focus on teacher training. Building on the work
of the G8 Digital Opportunities Task Force (dot.force), we will work
to expand the use of information and communications technology (ICT)
to train teachers in best practices and strengthen education
strategies. We especially encourage the private sector to examine new
opportunities for investment in infrastructure, ICT and learning
materials. We encourage MDBs to sharpen their focus on education and
concentrate their future work on countries with sound strategies but
lacking sufficient resources and to report next year to the G8. We
support UNESCO in its key role for universal education. We will also
work with the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to support
efforts to fight child labour and we will develop incentives to
increase school enrolment.

19. We will establish a task force of senior G8 officials to advise us
on how best to pursue the Dakar goals in co-operation with developing
countries, relevant international organisations and other
stakeholders. The task force will provide us with recommendations in
time for our next meeting.

20. As the November 2001 "World Food Summit: Five Years Later"
approaches, food security remains elusive. Over 800 million people
remain seriously malnourished, including at least 250 million
children. So a central objective of our poverty reduction strategy
remains access to adequate food supplies and rural development.
Support to agriculture is a crucial instrument of ODA. We shall
endeavour to develop capacity in poor countries, integrating
programmes into national strategies and increasing training in
agricultural science. Every effort should be undertaken to enhance
agricultural productivity. Among other things, the introduction of
tried and tested new technology, including biotechnology, in a safe
manner and adapted to local conditions has significant potential to
substantially increase crop yields in developing countries, while
using fewer pesticides and less water than conventional methods. We
are committed to study, share and facilitate the responsible use of
biotechnology in addressing development needs.

21. We shall target the most food-insecure regions, particularly
Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and continue to encourage
South-South co-operation. We will support the crucial role
international organisations and NGOs play in relief operations. We
believe national poverty reduction and sectoral strategies should take
due account of the nutritional needs of vulnerable groups, including
new-borns and their mothers.

Digital Opportunities

22. ICT holds tremendous potential for helping developing countries
accelerate growth, raise standards of living and meet other
development priorities. We endorse the report of the Digital
Opportunity Task Force (dot.force) and its Genoa Plan of Action that
successfully fulfilled the Okinawa mandate. The direct participation
of representatives from public, private and non-profit sectors, as
well as that of developing countries' governments, presents a unique
formula for ensuring that digital technologies meet development needs.
We will continue to support the process and encourage all stakeholders
to demonstrate ownership, to mobilise expertise and resources and to
build on this successful co-operation. We will review the
implementation of the Genoa Plan of Action at our next Summit on the
basis of a report by the G8 Presidency. We also encourage development
of an Action Plan on how e-Government can strengthen democracy and the
rule of law by empowering citizens and making the provision of
essential government services more efficient.

A Legacy for the Future

Environment

23. We confirm our determination to find global solutions to threats
endangering the planet. We recognise that climate change is a pressing
issue that requires a global solution. We are committed to providing
strong leadership. Prompt, effective and sustainable action is needed,
consistent with the ultimate objective of the UN Framework Convention
on Climate Change of stabilising greenhouse gas concentrations in the
atmosphere. We are determined to meet our national commitments and our
obligations under the Convention through a variety of flexible means,
drawing on the power of markets and technology. In this context, we
agree on the importance of intensifying co-operation on
climate-related science and research. We shall promote co-operation
between our countries and developing countries on technology transfer
and capacity building.

24. We all firmly agree on the need to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. While there is currently disagreement on the Kyoto Protocol
and its ratification, we are committed to working intensively together
to meet our common objective. To that end, we are participating
constructively in the resumed Sixth Conference of the Parties in Bonn
(COP6) and will continue to do so in all relevant fora. We welcome the
recent deepening of discussions among the G8 and with other countries.

25. We reaffirm that our efforts must ultimately result in an outcome
that protects the environment and ensures economic growth compatible
with our shared objective of sustainable development for present and
future generations.

26. We welcome Russia's proposal to convene in 2003 a global
conference on climate change with the participation of governments,
business and science as well as representatives of civil society.

27. We recognise the importance of renewable energy for sustainable
development, diversification of energy supply, and preservation of the
environment. We will ensure that renewable energy sources are
adequately considered in our national plans and encourage others to do
so as well. We encourage continuing research and investment in
renewable energy technology, throughout the world. Renewable energy
can contribute to poverty reduction. We will help developing countries
strengthen institutional capacity and market-oriented national
strategies that can attract private sector investment in renewable
energy and other clean technologies. We call on MDBs and national
development assistance agencies to adopt an innovative approach and to
develop market-based financing mechanisms for renewable energy. We
urge the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to continue supporting
environmental protection on a global scale and fostering good
practices to promote efficient energy use and the development of
renewable energy sources in the developing world, and stress the need
to commit adequate resources to its third replenishment. We thank all
those who participated in the work of the Renewable Energy Task Force
established in Okinawa. G8 energy ministers will hold a meeting in the
coming year to discuss these and other energy-related issues.

28. We are looking forward to the World Summit on Sustainable
Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002, an important milestone in
the Rio process. The three dimensions of sustainable development --
enhancing economic growth, promoting human and social development and
protecting the environment -- are interdependent objectives requiring
our concerted action. We will work in partnership with developing
countries for an inclusive preparatory process with civil society on a
forward looking and substantial agenda with action-oriented results.
We welcome the recent adoption of the Stockholm Convention on
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and will strongly promote its
early entry into force.

29. We are committed to ensuring that our Export Credit Agencies
(ECAs) adhere to high environmental standards. We therefore agreed in
Okinawa to develop common environmental guidelines for ECAs, drawing
on relevant MDB experience. Building on the progress made since last
year, we commit to reach agreement in the OECD by the end of the year
on a Recommendation that fulfils the Okinawa mandate.

Food safety

30. Fully aware of the paramount importance of food safety to our
peoples, we will continue to support a transparent, scientific and
rules-based approach and will intensify our efforts to achieve greater
global consensus on how precaution should be applied to food safety in
circumstances where available scientific information is incomplete or
contradictory. We value the ongoing dialogue between governments,
scientists, consumers, regulators, and relevant stakeholders in civil
society. This must be based on the principle of openness and
transparency. We recognise our responsibility to promote a clear
understanding by the public of food safety benefits and risks. We
shall strive to provide consumers with relevant information on the
safety of food products, based on independent scientific advice, sound
risk analysis and the latest research developments. We believe an
effective framework for risk management, consistent with the science,
is a key component in maintaining consumer confidence and in fostering
public acceptance.

31. We welcome the outcome of the recent Bangkok conference on new
biotechnology food and crops and the ad hoc meeting of regulators from
OECD countries and Russia. We encourage the relevant international
organisations to follow up the conference, as appropriate, within
their own respective mandates. Furthermore, we welcome the
establishment of the joint FAO / WHO Global Forum of Food Safety
Regulators. We also appreciate the work of the Inter-Academy Council
in publicising balanced professional views on the science of food
safety. All these meetings demonstrate our commitment to a process of
dialogue aimed at strengthening public confidence in food safety.

Increasing Prosperity in a Socially-Inclusive Society

Employment

32. In the firm belief that economic performance and social inclusion
are mutually dependent, we commit to implement policies in line with
the recommendations of the G8 Labour Ministers Conference held in
Torino last year. We welcome the increased activity of older persons
who represent, as stated in the G8 Turin Charter "Towards Active
Ageing", a great reservoir of resources for our economies and our
societies.

Combating transnational organised crime and drugs

33. We reaffirm our commitment to combat transnational organised
crime. To this end, we strongly endorse the outcome of the G8 Justice
and Interior Ministers Conference held in Milano this year. We
encourage further progress in the field of judicial co-operation and
law enforcement, and in fighting corruption, cyber-crime, online child
pornography, as well as trafficking in human beings.

34. Following up on the G8 ad hoc Meeting of Drug Experts held in
Miyazaki last year and the recent London Conference on the global
economy of illegal drugs, we will strengthen efforts to curb the
trafficking and use of illegal drugs.

To the citizens of Genova

35. We are grateful to the citizens of Genova for their hospitality,
and deplore the violence, loss of life and mindless vandalism that
they have had to endure. We will maintain our active and fruitful
dialogue with developing countries and other stakeholders. And we will
defend the right of peaceful protestors to have their voices heard.
But as democratic leaders, we cannot accept that a violent minority
should be allowed to disrupt our discussions on the critical issues
affecting the world. Our work will go on.

Next Summit

36. We accept the invitation of the Prime Minister of Canada to meet
again next year in the province of Alberta, Canada on 26-28 June.



Wednesday 
23/11/2005 
Bildt Blog Comments

In addition to this webpage, and the email letters ongoing since 1994, I have now started a blog as well.

You find it at http://bildt.blogspot.com.

At www.bildt.net you will continue to find articles, speeches and different documents.

At the blog there will be the shorter and perhaps somewhat faster comments.

And the e-letter continues to give at the least an attempt at analys.



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